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3.5a Simon de Passe’s commission

Pieter Isaacsz had yet to die when Christian IV attracted a new force from the Dutch Republic, namely the engraver Simon de Passe (c. 1595-1647). This artist had already portrayed Francis Bacon [i] and Christian’s sister, Queen Anne [i], in London. It is therefore possible that Anne recommended this young and skillful artist to her brother.

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Simon de Passe, Portrait of the scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Simon de Passe
Portrait of the scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) (1626 - 1647)
engraving / paper, 182 x 113 mm
Rijksprentenkabinet, Amsterdam, no. RP-P-1911-709



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Simon de Passe  published by John Sudbury and George Humble, Portrait of Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), queen of England, dated 1617

Simon de Passe  published by John Sudbury and George Humble
Portrait of Anne of Denmark (1574-1619), queen of England dated 1617
engraving / paper, 184 x 116 mm
British Museum, London (England), no. O.7.252



De Passe was at first active at the Danish court as portrait engraver [i], and we would have no grounds to pay particular attention to him in this capacity, had he not helped disseminate Dutch art in other ways. Kronborg Castle had burned down in 1629 and was reconstructed by Hans van Steenwinckel II in the following years. The need therefore arose to devise the interior décor anew. In 1637 Christian IV, who envisioned decorating the castle with paintings celebrating the deeds of his ancestors, entrusted Simon de Passe with the direction of this enterprise. He had to have the various events sketched at once and then to commission the subjects from Dutch painters. The sketchbook, containing more than 80 drawings, has survived (in the print cabinet in Copenhagen).1 De Passe was later to engrave the drawings, complete with text. We learn that he drew on his home town of Utrecht for collaborators. The lion’s share was secured by his brother Crispijn van de Passe II, who came to Copenhagen for the purpose [i].2

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Simon de Passe, Portrait of King Christian IV, dated 1629

Simon de Passe
Portrait of King Christian IV dated 1629
engraving / paper, 410 x 293 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. KKSgb4887



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Pagan procession leading German gods and humans for sacrifice out of a town

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Pagan procession leading German gods and humans for sacrifice out of a town (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 253 x 377 mm
lower left :  Crispin de pas
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-1



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Human and animal sacrifices for pagan gods

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Human and animal sacrifices for pagan gods (1637 - 1639)
pen in brown ink / yellowish paper, 252 x 375 mm
lower center :  Crispin de pas fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-2



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Divination by priestesses using human entrails, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Divination by priestesses using human entrails dated 1639
pencil / yellowish paper, 328 x 457 mm
below, right of the middle :  Crispin de pas f. 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-3



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), A King sacrificing an animal in front of a statue of Thor, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
A King sacrificing an animal in front of a statue of Thor dated 1639
pen in brown ink / yellowish paper, 238 x 378 mm
lower left :  crispin de pas invent. 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-4



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The Cimbrians defeating the Romans

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The Cimbrians defeating the Romans (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 257 x 379 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-5



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The Cimbrians plundering fallen Romans during the siege of a bridge, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The Cimbrians plundering fallen Romans during the siege of a bridge dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 283 x 338 mm
lower left :  Cris. de pas inv 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-6



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Cimbrian Cavalry crossing the river Adige, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Cimbrian Cavalry crossing the river Adige dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 254 x 376 mm
lower right :  crispin de pas 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-7



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Roman prisoners of war are set free after swearing an oath on a copper ox

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Roman prisoners of war are set free after swearing an oath on a copper ox (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 240 x 380 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-8



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The Roman Legatus Scaurus is executed by Bolus, leader of the Cimbrians, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The Roman Legatus Scaurus is executed by Bolus, leader of the Cimbrians dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 238 x 381 mm
lower left :  Crispin de pas in Copen: fecit 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-9



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Emperor Augustus receives a copper kettle from Cimbrian ambassadors

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Emperor Augustus receives a copper kettle from Cimbrian ambassadors (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 239 x 279 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-10



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Emperor Louis the Pious receives Harold Klak in 826

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Emperor Louis the Pious receives Harold Klak in 826 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 266 x 390 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-19



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The Danes make peace with King Burhedus of Mercia in Nottingham

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The Danes make peace with King Burhedus of Mercia in Nottingham (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 237 x 380 mm
lower center :  Crispin de pas inve
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-21



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), King Athelstane of England sends a sword to King Harold the Blond of Norway

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
King Athelstane of England sends a sword to King Harold the Blond of Norway (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 239 x 381 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-22



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  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (II), Duke Rollo is granted Normandy in 911; in the background Paris

  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Duke Rollo is granted Normandy in 911; in the background Paris (1637 - 1643)
graphite / yellowish paper, 279 x 398 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-23



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  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (I), The Danish fighter Tymme Sjaellandsfar encourages the retreating army in Engeland in 1017, 1637

  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (I)
The Danish fighter Tymme Sjaellandsfar encourages the retreating army in Engeland in 1017 1637
graphite / yellowish paper, 279 x 401 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-25



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The death of Bishop William of Roskilde

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The death of Bishop William of Roskilde (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 270 x 392 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-26



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Knud Lavard befriends Duke Hendrick of the Wends

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Knud Lavard befriends Duke Hendrick of the Wends (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 258 x 410 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-28



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Harald Gille proofs in a Trial by ordeal to be the son of the Norvegian King Magnus Barfod, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Harald Gille proofs in a Trial by ordeal to be the son of the Norvegian King Magnus Barfod dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 237 x 381 mm
lower left :  crispin de pas inven 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-29



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Radulf protects Roskilde against the Wends

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Radulf protects Roskilde against the Wends (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 270 x 392 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-30



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Cavalry battle

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Cavalry battle (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 280 x 335 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-31



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Christian I occupies Gotland in 1449 (?), dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Christian I occupies Gotland in 1449 (?) dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 327 x 447 mm
lower right :  C. de pas delin. 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-34



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Queen Philippa protects Copenhagen from the Hanseatic fleet in 1428

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Queen Philippa protects Copenhagen from the Hanseatic fleet in 1428 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 317 x 441 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-35



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), King Hans in the Battle of Rotebro near Stockholm in 1497

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
King Hans in the Battle of Rotebro near Stockholm in 1497 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 279 x 404 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-36



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), King Christian I of Denmark meets Prince Maximilian near Rothenburg in 1474, dated 1639

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
King Christian I of Denmark meets Prince Maximilian near Rothenburg in 1474 dated 1639
graphite / yellowish paper, 277 x 335 mm
lower left :  Cispin de pas 1639
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-37



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), King Frederick I of Denmark inspects the fortifications of Copenhagen in 1523

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
King Frederick I of Denmark inspects the fortifications of Copenhagen in 1523 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 278 x 341 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-39



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The double Royal betrothals and weddings in 1502

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The double Royal betrothals and weddings in 1502 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 262 x 389 mm
lower right :  Crispin de pas delin:
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-41



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Cavalry battle near Maastricht

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Cavalry battle near Maastricht (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 281 x 338 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-42



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), The conquest of Liège in 1577

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
The conquest of Liège in 1577 (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 241 x 383 mm
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-43



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  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (II), Rollo besieges Lisbon

  attributed to Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Rollo besieges Lisbon (1637 - 1639)
graphite / yellowish paper, 239 x 423 mm
Nationalmuseum Stockholm, Stockholm, no. NMH 353/1973



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Crispijn de  Passe (II), Baptism scene, baptism of an adult King, after 1637

Crispijn de  Passe (II)
Baptism scene, baptism of an adult King after 1637
red chalk / paper, 248 x 367 mm
Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Berlin, no. Kdz 2829



Gerard van Honthorst drew a whole series of subjects [i],3

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Gerard van Honthorst, Uffe, son of King Vermund, defeats two Saxons on an island in the Eider, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
Uffe, son of King Vermund, defeats two Saxons on an island in the Eider after 1637
graphite / brown paper, 280 x 401 mm
lower right :  G Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-12



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Gerard van Honthorst, The election of a king in a clearing in the woods, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
The election of a king in a clearing in the woods after 1637
graphite / brown-grey paper, 276 x 399 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst fec.
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-13



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Gerard van Honthorst, King Frode Fredegod of Denmark honoured by other kings, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
King Frode Fredegod of Denmark honoured by other kings after 1637
graphite / brown paper, 280 x 405 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-14



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Gerard van Honthorst, King Ingild Vendemod kills the murderers of his father at a banquet, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
King Ingild Vendemod kills the murderers of his father at a banquet after 1637
graphite / brown washed paper, 281 x 405 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-15



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Gerard van Honthorst, King Jarmeric orders the torture of the imprisoned Wends, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
King Jarmeric orders the torture of the imprisoned Wends after 1637
graphite / brown paper, 274 x 399 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst faciebat
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-16



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Gerard van Honthorst, The mourning of Rolf Krake's death, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
The mourning of Rolf Krake's death after 1637
graphite / sepia colored paper, 279 x 405 mm
lower left :  Gerh. Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-18



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Gerard van Honthorst, Harold Klak and his family are baptized in Mainz, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
Harold Klak and his family are baptized in Mainz after 1637
graphite / grey-yellow paper, 276 x 400 mm
lower left :  G. Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-20



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Gerard van Honthorst, The Entry of King Valdemar Atterdag in Visby in 1361, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
The Entry of King Valdemar Atterdag in Visby in 1361 after 1637
graphite / brown paper, 278 x 392 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-32



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Gerard van Honthorst, King Albrecht hands over the Swedish crown to Queen Margaret I of Denmark, 1389, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
King Albrecht hands over the Swedish crown to Queen Margaret I of Denmark, 1389 after 1637
graphite / brown paper, 276 x 401 mm
lower right :  G. Honthorst fec.
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-33



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Gerard van Honthorst, Homage to King Valdemar II of Denmark in Lübeck, 1202, after 1637

Gerard van Honthorst
Homage to King Valdemar II of Denmark in Lübeck, 1202 after 1637
pencil / yellowish paper, 257 x 454 mm
lower left :  G. Honthorst
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-44



and Abraham Bloemaert [i], Jan van Bijlert [i], Simon Peter Tilman [i],4 Adam Willaerts [i], Nicolaes Knüpfer [i] and, remarkably, Palamedes Palamedesz I [i] each rendered several others.

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Abraham Bloemaert, The ordeal by fire of Bishop Poppo, c. 1637-1639

Abraham Bloemaert
The ordeal by fire of Bishop Poppo c. 1637-1639
black chalk / yellowish paper, 242 x 369 mm
lower left :  Abr: Bloemaert delineavit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. TU 121-24



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Jan van Bijlert, Rolf Krake's endurance put to the test, after 1637

Jan van Bijlert
Rolf Krake's endurance put to the test after 1637
oil paint / paper, 257 x 402 mm
lower right :  J. Bylaer pinxit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-17



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Simon Peter Tilman, King Erik Ejegod of Denmark received in Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor in 1103, dated 1637

Simon Peter Tilman
King Erik Ejegod of Denmark received in Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor in 1103 dated 1637
graphite / yellowish paper, 264 x 384 mm
lower left :  S P Tilman fecit 1637
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-27



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Adam Willaerts, King Christian II leaves Copenhagen in 1523, after 1637

Adam Willaerts
King Christian II leaves Copenhagen in 1523 after 1637
graphite / yellowish paper, 276 x 391 mm
lower left :  Adam Wilers fecit
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-38



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Nicolaes Knüpfer, King Skjold defeats the giant Skate in a duel and obtains Alvida as a bride, after 1637

Nicolaes Knüpfer
King Skjold defeats the giant Skate in a duel and obtains Alvida as a bride after 1637
graphite / yellowish paper, 257 x 405 mm
lower left :  N. Knüpfer fec.
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-11



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Palamedes  Palamedesz. (I), The battle of Åstorp (Axtornia) in 1565, after 1637

Palamedes  Palamedesz. (I)
The battle of Åstorp (Axtornia) in 1565 after 1637
oil paint / paper, 278 x 403 mm
lower right :  Palamedes Palamedessen
SMK - The Royal Collection of Graphic Art, Copenhagen, no. Tu 121-40





[1]

[Van Leeuwen 2015] Though De Passe was required to have 80 drawings made, ‘only’ 47 drawn designs are known. Of the 15 currently-known paintings that were rendered after the series, the disegni for only four could be traced (Schepelern/Houkjær 1988).

[2]

[Van Leeuwen 2015] Thirty of these (all depicted here) are known. Schepelern/Houkjær 1988.

[3]

[Van Leeuwen 2015] Ten of these (all illustrated here) are known. Schepelern/Houkjær 1988.

[4]

[Van Leeuwen 2015] There exists an autograph repetition of this drawing (RKDImages 72125).

Datum laatste wijziging: Apr 23, 2015 02:44 PM